Before Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the Spanish banned trade between Santa Fe and the United States. © Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated July 2020. Founded primarily to protect the trail, the fort’s original structures had already deteriorated by the Civil War, and a fortification was built. Despite the hazards, the shorter route would end up carrying 75% of the Santa Fe Trail pioneers. It became a water stop for stagecoaches and a freight stop on the  Santa Fe Trail. The book does provide a very thorough overview of the trail, some of the people who traveled it. White was attacked near here in 1849, and 11 graves are located at the site. There was a military camp at Rayado in the early 1850s to help protect this portion of the Mountain Route. The pueblo was still inhabited when the Santa Fe Trail opened in 1821, but it was abandoned around 1838. The City of Santa Fe was founded about 1610, the exact date is unknown. A GeoTour is a tailored series of geocaches hidden at a destination's points of interest such as historic sites, museums, physical remnants and a varied landscape that makes up the legacy of the Santa Fe Trail. Reading the history of some of my ancestors, I can fill in more info on what the writer has not written in detail about specific people. By this time, the trail was being frequently used with more than 2000 wagons, in caravans of about 50 departing each spring from Missouri. William Becknell blazes the Santa Fe Trail. The crossing of of Corrumpa Creek in Union County is 3.8 miles southwest of the Oklahoma state line. Indians used the road for free. The party of Santa Fe merchant J.W. The crossing is located on private land two miles south of US Highway 56. Goods, ideas, and diverse cultural interactions traversed the Santa Fe Trail for nearly 60 years, and the mixing of cultures and ideas that followed created a unique experience that lives on today. Though numerous dangers awaited him, Captain William Becknell was determined to make the trip through waterless plains and war-like Indians to trade with the distant Mexicans in New Mexico. The byway follows Moulton Street southeast to Second Street in. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. We use cookies. The famous trail of romantic western lore was established in about 1610 by Spanish settlers of Mexico who had explored western and southern regions of North America long before the French and English arrived. We use cookies. In July of 1850, the first government-sanctioned mail delivery route was inaugurated between Independence, Missouri, and Santa Fe, New Mexico using the Cimarron Cutoff branch of the Santa Fe Trail.The monthly stage also carried passengers and baggage for a one-way summer fare of $100 for the three and-a-half week trip. By 1872, the Santa Fe Railroad was completed to the Colorado border and the days of the Santa Fe Trail as a main transportation route were over. The Santa Fe National Historic Trail GeoTour has over 70 caches placed in historic locations covering over 900 miles in length. The Santa Fe Trail New Mexico National Scenic Byway follows today’s highways and roads near the original Santa Fe Trail paths. Required fields are marked *. One of the most noted historic buildings on the Plaza is the Palace of the Governors. The first successful venture to Santa Fe over the Santa Fe Trail was made by Captain William Becknell. Between these points, there were practically no settlements of white people, and, indeed, few permanent Indian towns. Crossing Raton Pass was the hardest part of traveling the Mountain route. Other sites along this stretch of the combined trail include Las Vegas Plaza, Tecolote, San Miguel del Vado, Apache Canyon, Kearny Gap, and Glorieta Pass. The founding of the Santa Fe Trail is one of the most significant contributions to the expansionist doctrine of Manifest Destiny, leading to the war with Mexico that occurred on January 29, 1822. Kit Carson Museum, Rayado, New Mexico courtesy Wikipedia. In 1880 a railroad reached Santa Fe, and the use of the Santa Fe Trail declined. Missouri had been a United States territory since 1812 and attained statehood in 1821; therefore, unlike the other four states along the trail, Missouri was already a state when the trail opened. After independence, Mexico encouraged trade. The byway follows Moulton Street southeast to Second Street in Raton, first known as Willow Springs. Richens “Uncle Dick” Wootton established a toll road through the pass-through here in 1865, charging $1.50 for wagons, 25¢ for horses, and 5¢ for each head of stock. This point became a favorite camping place along the trail where wagon trains often stopped and soldiers and traders rested. It is located on 17th Street and is open in the summer. In 1850 a party of 10 men accompanying the express mail wagon on the Cimarron route were killed by Jicarilla Apache near here. In 1834, Bent’s Fort, a fur trade post on the upper Arkansas River was established near what is present-day La Junta, Colorado.  William and Charles Bent, Ceran St. Vrain and Company led a party and wagons eastbound from Santa Fe, New Mexico in the late summer, traveled by way of Taos and Raton Pass to Bent’s Fort; then came down the Arkansas River to the Santa Fe Trail, opening the Bent’s Fort Santa Fe Trail. When the war ended in 1848, trading resumed and considerable military freight continued to be hauled over the trail to supply the southwestern forts. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Along the Mountain Route, which entered New Mexico from Colorado, significant sites include the site of the Lucien Maxwell House, Ocate Crossing, and Fort Union National Monument. Both routes followed the same path from Missouri, traveling west to the Arkansas River and following the river into southwest Kansas. For many years, the only trading post between Independence, Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico was in Council Grove, Kansas, some 130 miles from Independence and over 650 miles from Santa Fe. Trading ranches and stage stations along the Cimarron Route included the Samuel B. Watrous Ranch House and Store, Barclay’s Fort Site north of Watrous, and the Sapello Stage Station, also known as Gregg Tavern Stage Station or Barlow & Sanderson Stage Station in Watrous. Council Grove, Kansas about 1875. New Mexico Highway 406 intersects McNees Crossing, where the trail forded the North Canadian River. I'm enjoying this read of the Santa Fe Trail as I lived very close to where the trail was in Southeastern Colorado. Your email address will not be published. This remarkable journey covers a period of almost 400 years. I would love to say that your website is amazing! lots of love and thanks! Table of Contents Acknowledgments Introduction 1. Fort Union was a major military post on the Santa Fe Trail during the period from 1851 to 1891, and for a time it was the largest American military post in the Southwest. Old Barlow & Sanderson Stage Station in Cimarron, New Mexico. The site was also used as a campground, and a group of traders celebrated the Fourth of July here in 1831. Settled around 1844, it became the headquarters of the 1.75-million-acre Maxwell Land Grant in 1857. On his first trip, Becknell loaded manufactured goods from Missouri onto a mule train to trade for furs, gold, silver, and other goods in New Mexico. Edward Dorris, a stagecoach driver, died of a sunstroke or a heart attack enroute to Bent's Old Fort, a Barlow and Sanderson stagecoach station in the 1860's. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This is the site of the Pecos Pueblo, which was the easternmost pueblo visited by Francisco Coronado in 1541. The Santa Fe Trail goes through the brick streets of Trinidad, through quaint rural farm towns and the cities of Lamar, La Junta, and Las Animas, all of which have wonderful historic buildings that tell the stories of merchants, cattlemen, railroad developers, and miners. The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore by David Dary is an extensive look at the long history of one of America's famous overland trails. General Stephen Watts Kearny’s Army of the West crossed here in 1846 and camped nearby. People today can still travel a section of the road that those early settlers traversed or view the ruts carved by the heavy wagons. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along the Missouri River, the trail served as a vital commercial highway until 1880, when the railroad arrived in Santa Fe. Wagon trains entered the plaza from the east after crossing the Cimarron River. From 1610, when the Spanish founded the city of Santa Fe, to the 1860s, when the railroad brought unprecedented changes: here is the full, fascinating story of the great Santa Fe Trail which ran between Missouri and Kansas and New Mexico--a lifeline to and from the Southwest for more than two centuries. Bavaria, Kansas – Ranching on the Santa Fe Trail A long-closed high school in Bavaria, Kansas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander. When legal trade began in 1821, over half of the land now comprising Colorado was under Mexican ownership; the other half was unorganized territory. The many smaller trails merged again along the Las Vegas-Santa Fe Corridor into New Mexico. This route was heavily used during and after the Civil War, and it was often mentioned by trail travelers. Source: See Santa Fe Trail Writing Credits. In 1873, the Kanza Indians were removed from their reservation in Morris County to Oklahoma Territory, thus opening more land in the county for white settlement. Upstream it is sandy and hard to cross, while downstream, a deep and rocky canyon makes it impossible to cross. Trails to Santa Fe, 1762-1807 In 1849, with the discovery of gold in California, westbound emigrants, in increasing numbers, traveled the Santa Fe Trail to Bent’s Fort, then journeyed northward by trail along the base of the Rocky Mountains to Fort Laramie and beyond. This was once a popular campsite with a nearby spring. On September 1, 1821, Becknell left Franklin, Missouri with four trusted companions, and after arriving in Santa Fe on November 16, and making an enormous profit, he made plans to return, thus blazing the path that would become known as the Santa Fe Trail. The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore - Kindle edition by Dary, David. Like others who had gone before him, the hardship of life on the Santa Fe Trail ended here at Bent's Fort. Jornada Del Muerto on the Cimarron Route of the Santa Fe Trail, photo courtesy National Park Service. A number of significant sites exist along this route, including McNee’s Crossing, Point of Rocks, and the Rock Crossing of the Canadian River. Ultimately, travelers reached the end of the trail, the Santa Fe Plaza. Santa Fe Trail – Highway To the Southwest, Sources: See Santa Fe Trail Site Map & Writing Credits, Your email address will not be published. The  Fort Union National Monument in Mora County is near the junction of the Cimarron and Mountain routes. Two routes soon developed along the trail, the Mountain Route and the Cimarron Route, also called the Jornada Route. This spot was considered to be the real entry into Mexico, and Mexican troops were sometimes sent this far to escort traders back to Santa Fe. Bavaria, Kansas is an unincorporated community and near ghost town located about nine miles southwest of Salina. Although Jacob Fowler and Hugh Glenn were discovered trapping beaver streams north of Santa Fe in 1821, Captain William Becknell is credited with the establishment of the Santa Fe Trail, and as the first successful American trader to reach Santa Fe in 1821, thus receiving the … Though the shorter Jornada Route, also called the Cimarron Cutoff, provided less water, it saved the travelers ten days by cutting southwest across the Cimarron Desert to Santa Fe. With him, were four trusted companions, who left Arrow Rock, on the Missouri River, near Franklin, Missouri on September 1, 1821. This rock crossing, which is still visible, was named for a young trader, Robert McNees, who was killed here by Indians in 1828. Other trails that were connected to the Santa Fe Trail included the Old Spanish Trail, which linked Santa Fe to Los Angeles, and the El Camino Real, which connected  Santa Fe to Mexico City. Today, Maxwell’s old has been restored. In the prosperous days of the Santa Fe trade, it contained about 3,000 inhabitants. During these days, the Sunflower State was known as "Bleeding Kansas", where settlers fought to make Kansas a "Free-State" or a "Slave State".Opportunists often raided settlements along the Santa Fe Trail and on September 15, 1856, a gang representing themselves as Free-Staters looted the store, stealing everything in his possession. The byway then makes its way west out of Clayton on U.S. 56 past the Rabbit Ear Mountains, an important landmark on the trail. It is the oldest extant public building in the United States and now is part of the Museum of New Mexico. Please keep it up!! Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Trade was limited again during the Civil War (1861-1865), but by the late 1860s, activity along the trail had resumed. Ocate Crossing in Mora County was a watering point and campsite. Santa Fe Trail Summary Description (See Below). The Santa Fe Trail Its History, Legends, and Lore David Dary. Army Train Crossing the Plains by Harper’s Weekly, 1858. The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore A prize-winning historian of the Old West brings to life the people who laid down the Santa Fe Trail and opened commerce with Spanish America. The byway leaves Springer on the east I-25 frontage road bound for Wagon Mound, the last major landmark on this stretch of the road. The Santa Fe Trail Museum in the old Colfax County Courthouse in Springer, New Mexico by Kathy Weiser-Alexander. Stone marker of the route of the Santa Fe Trail, an important trade route running between Missouri and what is now New Mexico in two branches. At Fort Larned, Kansas the trail split into two branches. Our cookies are delicious. It began when crowds of people formed along the dirt streets of Franklin, Missouri, as a party of four men rode in from the West. Mountain Route trade, it contained about 3,000 inhabitants Kansas is an unincorporated community and near town. Despite the hazards, the Santa Fe Trail, photo courtesy National Park Service through Baldwin City sites along Route. Constructed in the early history of what became the State of Missouri, phones or.. 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