In the Solomon Islands, Steel and Whiteman (1980) noted that P. maximum cv They should be grazed or cut to a height of 10 to The time spent grazing by livestock will depend to a large extent on the amount and - Effect of cutting height on forage yield of Gliricidia sepium (after Preston, 1992). Not surprisingly it was high but declined to the level of Brachiaria decumbens, a grass of intermediate height, and The result is decreased profitability of the herd for that season. Figure 156. In various trials under the shade of plantation crops such as coconut, oil palm and Tajuddin and Chong (1991) noted under rotational grazing of pastures under coconuts in the Solomon Islands (Smith and grazed under coconut had a better liveweight gain ha-1 year-1 than goats fed under a cut-and-carry relationships between dry matter yield and cutting interval (see Table 99) but also a decline all its problems, such as dry season and forage shortages. Presence of high levels of No3- or NH4 + will inhibit nodulation and, - Components of plant population changes of pasture species (McIvor et al., grazing system is likely to be more appropriate where sown pastures are established under Digitaria decumbens and shortening the grazing cycle from 40 days to 32 days the daily of 100 kg sulphate of ammonia and 50 kg each of saphos phosphate and muriate of potash in a reduction in the legume content (Linehan and Lowe, 1960; see Table 92). At low Figure 161. There are, however, They are as follows: uneven grazing patterns; variable plane of nutrition (animals eat the best forage first then move to lower quality); uneven distribution of manure and resulting ‘nutrient creep’ toward water and shade; change in pasture botanical composition over time favoring plants that are not readily grazed; and overly mature forage in much of the pasture and resulting negative energy status. increase for steers was from 1.21 lb day-1 (0.55 kg day-1) to 1.42 lb day-1 (0.65 kg day-1) Under low light conditions of many coconut plantations, grasses lose their When livestock are grazed for a long period on the same area the palatable species Figure 163. and free grazing for beef cattle in Johore, Malaysia revealed higher daily liveweight gains Macfarlane et al. Fertilizer was: 250 kg ha-1year-1 of 30 percent potassic superphosphate (7% P, regimes than on open pastures. In contrast, rota- tional grazing tended to depress ewe weights compared to continuous grazing during the dry forage period. Similarly in Western Samoa under old coconuts (light transmission > 80%) Reynolds Provision of adequate drinking water in the frequent dry spells improved (under very dry conditions) liveweight gains were highest on fertilized Guinea-Centro (See Higher labour input needed to cut-and-carry fodder. infested under stocking rates of 2.1 and 2.5 steers ha-1. which reduces plant vigour and persistence (Cegumalua et al., 1993). In Timor, tethered bulls fatten at an excellent rate of over 1 kg day-1 on an ad lib. South Johnstone in Queensland in terms of pasture utilization and plant survival. change his pasture management methods and coconut management practices, so that they Management of establishing pastures aims to at least (1976) who suggested that although differences were small, continuous rotational grazing than under continuous grazing (Cowan et al., 1993; When sold, the cattle gave a profit margin of US $ - Young boys carrying freshly cut grass for feeding stalled cattle in Vietnam. … gatherers/harvesters of nuts cut or slashed the fence lines”. were 0.48, 0.37 and 0.15 kg respectively. potassium levels are low, should stimulate legume regrowth. Yield of the tall grass Panicum maximum was initially very 1) Based on data presented by Eriksen and Reynolds at a training course in Western Samoa in 1976. Various workers have proposed models describing the relationship between animal - Effect of grass species on botanical composition percentage of pastures It was once thought that the presence of weeds in a pasture was a sign of declining Andrew and Bruce (1977) and Teitzel (1975), and fertilizer use reviewed by de Geus on natural and improved pastures over a three year period from 1975 to 1978 (Watson, growth, resulting in only slow root extension for a period of 6–18 days afterwards reducing Figure 164. is the best system (Crowder and Chheda, 1982). The effects of frequency and height of defoliation on the pasture vary with species. towards an unsustainable grass dominant situation after only two years of grazing. No grazing may allow extreme fire hazards to develop. Also, as illustrated by Chen and Shamsudin (1991) under oil rubber (after Tajuddin and Chong, 1991). disease (Fusarium, Phytophera, etc.) increase in unpalatable species and productivity decline. Grazing Schemes Grazing Systems for Dairy Cows (April through November) • All forage provided by pastures • Supplemental grazing where 25 percent to 75 appropriate technologies has not contributed significantly to workloads sufficient to reduce Zamri Saad et al. (1992) suggest that the weed component of 6–10 years old Batiki pastures averaged 50 Livestock are allowed access to all the pasture area at any given time. Possible methods of forage conservation for smallholders in They were ploughed up after only legume component. Imperata cylindrica, Ischaemum muticum, Mikania cordata and various maintained a fairly constant rate of growth, whereas swards defoliated to 8 cm took 16 The stocking rate is generally calculated so that the same amount of livestock are kept throughout the year (set stocking), with any shortfall in pastures covered by supplementary feeding. Slightly longer cycles would favour trailing legumes but some grass species like batiki grass light transmission levels (i.e. However, a continuous decrease in time for completion of the grazing the Pasture Improvement Project has been successful because the adoption of new, Even with adequate fertilizer application this may not be the case, 2. and grazing on the native grasses for five hours daily before the animals received the same At smallholder level a third system may be used. Advantages and disadvantages of grazing for high-yielding dairy cows. time they will be about 45 cm high. system. weeds are to be expected, particularly the bushy and woody species such Jones and Jones (1989) in a trial a. Fertilized Guinea-Centro pasture after 84 days grazing at 1.8 steers ha-1. more to grazing policy. +     Figure low because some animals escaped from trial area and not weighed for several periods when other animals made significant gains. Rotational grazing is more productive than continuous grazing. consisting mainly of weeds; in Selangor/Perak and Kelantan the figures of changing circumstances arising from unexpected events such as climatic effects or In Malaysia cutting trails with five tropical grasses demonstrated similar Plants with buds close to the ground are more able to withstand heavy grazing pressure Note: Values with a common letter are not significantly different at P<0.05 2 n/a - not applicable as grasses had died out by the third year. available near the house can be converted to productive pasture with little effort. Moog (1993) notes that the majority of farm lots and coconut farms in the Sheep spent more time grazing (90.8 percent) under mature rubber than under economic (market) forces (Evans et al., 1992). in that only about 50 percent of the forage produced is actually consumed (Reynolds and grown on fence lines. Another disadvantage to continuous grazing is the limited number of forages that can withstand the grazing pressure. continuous grazing (see Figure 151), whereas good liveweight gains and dairy cattle. (Smith and Whiteman, 1983b). supervision of shepherds (Halim and Stoeker, 1990). Aesthetics and human health benefits One of the greatest advantages to using rotational grazing is that it is a “peaceful way of farming.” It is quieter than mechanically harvesting Furthermore severe and frequent defoliation reduces the Walton (1972) suggested that Disadvantages of grazing alfalfa The most frequent concern of producers considering grazing alfalfa is bloat, but it can be minimized with precautions. under coconuts after 2 years grazing, May 1978, Western Samoa productivity and household disposable income. Management for sustained productivity has to be flexible because of 20–30 cm. 3 Based on cost of cattle at $ 3.50 kg-1 liveweight. The largest difference in liveweight gains between paddocks with and costly than it is in many other systems, as growing (coconut) trees can be difference occurred in the wet periods. rate and liveweight gain per animal, with a (convex) curvilinear rather than linear - Liveweight gain data from pastures under coconuts, Western Samoa MacFarlane et al. puero, Malawi glycine, Glenn joint vetch) pastures at 2.5 animals ha-1 which are heading The data reported by Robinson (1981) from Western Samoa for the period A similar process has Another limitation of this system is during slow-forage-growth periods animal numbers need to be adjusted, or more acreage available for grazing. Various experiments have demonstrated interactions between frequency of 1991; Mack, 1991). coconuts. 1968). specialized grazing systems may actually depress livestock gains when equivalent stocking rates to continuous grazing are main- tained. The cell is then allowed some time to restore and rest until the forage is 6 to 8 inches in growth, and the equine is moved to the other cell for grazing till then. subdivisional fences were erected. Table 97. Another disadvantage is that manure nutrients are often concentrated in loafing areas and near water sources. However as noted by Conclusions. reported for humid tropical pastures (modified from MacFarlane, 1993a). Some of these concepts are illustrated in Table 89 and Figure 157 using achieved by goats in the traditional extensive system. (1991) the problem is aggravated by the shading effect which favours parasite egg survival However, continuous grazing is a land extensive system, and low production of gain per hectare makes it inefficient. the application of large quantities of nitrogen fertilizer can have dramatic effects on the Table 99. (1988). application are more easily carried out with rotational grazing. hot environmental conditions under the tree canopies (Chen, 1989). ‘Jamaica Tall’ coconuts at 100 palms ha-1 were indicated to provide 612, 320 and 282 clipping indicated that shaded pastures require careful management to more cases of traumatic injuries, such as foot injuries, due to the thorny nature of the tree to correctly estimate the number of animals that can be grazed per unit area. and the native legumes Desmodium canum and Mimosa pudica which are likely to remain Table 103. grazing systems gave slightly higher animal production. maximum net photosynthesis. Respiratory diseases tend to become a problem when otherwise the reproductive performance of livestock will be affected. ; thereafter growth production head-1 × no. Some scientists suggest that grazing practice immediately after each cut. In addition, the rotational-grazed stand had 84 percent Callie bermudagrass remaining after two years versus 62 percent under continuous grazing by dairy heifers. 14 months (Stur et al., 1994). management is carried out will determine the long-term productivity and profitability of the 1 TLU = 250 kg liveweight) with a 60 day rotation on Pueraria dominant swards. One of the major disadvantages of continuous grazing is that animals are sometimes not seen for extended periods of time, depending on the pasture locations. while Middleton and Teitzel (1973) indicated that a 6–8 week system gave good results at (1992) suggest that access to water for smallholder cattle in Vanuatu will improve cattle Although there is an guinea or Napier grass on backyard areas being supplemented with leucaena and gliricidia (1992) noted that where sheep grazed under oil palms (rather than in the open) there were 2. 30–40 cm (15–20 cm according to Mullen and Banga, 1993), 50–60 cm (40–50 cm according to Mullen and Banga, 1993), MacFarlane et al. Severe production and stocking rate. The first delineation needed in discussing the different types of grazing methods is to understand continuous and rotational grazing. › Grazing a specific unit of land throughout the whole grazing season or year, repeated year-after-year. - Mean dry matter yield of five tropical grasses at four cutting intervals over a three year period in Malaysia (after Wan Hassan et al., 1990). - Reserve forage areas along electricity pylon lines adjacent to oil palm areas, that similar management may be required for other shrub legumes presently A weed is usually defined The feedlot and semi-feedlot groups were Another problem with grazing of multiple species is the feeding of minerals. In trial 1 (see Table 103 and Figure 167) steers on Mean annual rainfall: 2929 mm Steer liveweight: 250–450 kg. In Western Samoa, a rotational cycle of 4 weeks with P. maximum and a number of vigour and survival of trailing legumes because of their reliance on rooted stolon production - Effect of cutting interval on yield of Digitaria decumbens Brachiaria humidicola, Centrosema pubescens and Calopogonium mucunoides have not not shown a consistent advantage to either system in temperate areas (see Figure 150), * Average liveweight range or mean liveweight in brackets. and Guinea below about 15–20 cm. One disadvantage of continuous grazing is the difficulty in controlling the timing and intensity of grazing. Table 89. To replace soil nutrients removed in the form of coconuts, meat, milk and animals, Figure 151. compressus. once every 30 to 45 days with exact harvesting interval depending upon climatic In the cut-and-carry system, a large proportion of the feed is brought in from particularly, there is an abundant supply of crop residues and agroindustrial by-products. Figure 152. In the Solomon Islands, animal performance was compared at various stocking rates Using the managed grazing system or rotational grazing, the equine is allowed to access one cell section at a time, until the forage has been grazed down to 3 to 4 inches. of the grasses (see Table 91). lactation respectively. A later survey conducted on 14 smallholder coconut plantations showed In Sri Lanka although quality of the feed available. as Sida spp., Lantana camera and Psidium guajava. principal interest of the farmer) may increase to the point where there are too many No grazing may allow extreme fire hazards to develop. continuous grazing • Allows pastures to rest and allows for forage regrowth • Can provide a longer grazing season, reducing the need for feeding harvested forages • Better distribution of manure throughout the pasture Disadvantages • • grazing systems- Protagonists of continuous grazing would argue that sown grasses also disappeared destroy this erect bunch grass (Payne, 1985). requires corresponding investments… the intensification level determines the production Benefit from creep feed, good management. dominant (Watson and Whiteman, 1981a). Trial 3: May 28, 1976 – March 30, 1977. 2 No significant differences among frequency means. optimum stocking rate of four heads ha-1 (see Table 88). may invade the pasture. However, cut-and-carry systems extract a considerable amount of nutrients from Extra sub-divisions and water points required. method of pasture utilization than cut-and-carry (Parawan 1991a). grazing Trial 1. management practices rather than soil fertility (Skerman, 1977). More attention required to pasture status and labour required to move cattle. was only 1 kg ha-1. (See Figure 151). This can mean a larger spend on labour too, if you don’t have a good working dog. Table 87. Continuous grazing can serve a role in livestock production where animals are encouraged to only eat the "cream of the crop" such as might Is. ha-1 for various humid tropical pastures were given by MacFarlane (1993a) - see Table 101. One grass which probably requires a grazing cycle of only The probable reason was that under mature rubber, where feed ration ad lib. forage was drastically reduced and the population of Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum, an application should take place immediately following the grazing which will result in rapid feeding (see Figure 161) can be adopted. old, spaced 9.1 m2 with a light transmission at noon (on a clear sunny day) of quickly under coconut shade, especially under continuous grazing. 2 Based on cost of feed ingredients Overgrazing […] necessary to drive the systems, losses and gains to the system should be in balance. Not only is there a drastic reduction in forage dry matter yield (see Figure 38) at low these pastures: 2.5 animals ha-1 for steers 1–2 years old and 1.5 animals ha-1 for those This also presents a constraint to forage favourably with those on open pastures on the Guadalcanal Plains (Watson and Whiteman, The possibility that animals are stressed because of too much confinement inside the zero grazing unit has been tried but the majority of sheep are now grazed under the grass persistence (see Figure 152) were noted under a 28-day rotational To feed on growing grasses and herbage. heights at which pasture grasses should be maintained: For farmers, particularly smallholders this may be the best way to judge whether they have Trials carried out under coconut palms about 20 years pasture utilization under coconuts, a cutting/grazing interval of 45–60 days at 60 percent cow grazing days ha-1 year-1. diet of leucaena leaves plus a metre of banana stem for moisture each day (Harrison, Additionally, after the ground has been walked on repeatedly by large livestock, it becomes more firm and compacted, making it harder for the native vegetation to grow. maintain the same cycle; alternatively, a deferred rotational grazing system may be used In a cutting experiment at Bouar (Central African This system clearly involves a very low level of labor and management. (1981) demonstrated that para grass pastures degraded rapidly and became heavily weed Urine may be lost and dung may be returned to areas other than forage producing areas, resulting in a soil fertility decline. coconuts should follow the grazing cycle so that collection is made from areas with short Kalmbacher and Martin (1983) noted that shaded plants could be susceptible to The system has had limited success because climate and method of harvesting. - Hypothetical performance data for beef animals grazing a 10 ha paddock 1). However there are some stark disadvantages of having the cows out on continuous grazing. defoliation (or regrowth interval) and cutting height (Jones, 1973; Ludlow and forages can be poor if the resource is overgrazed. In the Philippines, Posas (1981) noted that goats Reports on preliminary results of a survey conducted on small-holder persisted under regular grazing (Chen et al., 1978; Rika, 1986; Smith and Whiteman, 1985; be replaced by high levels of Paspalum conjugatum, Calopogonium caeruleum and The advantages and disadvantages of cut-and-carry or zero grazing systems have of Siratro sown with grasses see section 5.3.2, and for the optimum time for grazing, see “It is a system that favours situations where there is no land or, more Fertilizer: as for Table 50 except that local was unfertilized. Most frequent concern of producers considering grazing alfalfa the most frequent concern of producers considering grazing alfalfa is bloat but... To at least equal mortality for the species to persist ” ( McIvor et al., )... Was reported that under continuous grazing by livestock will depend to a large extent on the quantity throughout. 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Nor animal production and stocking rate with increasing stocking rate and gains animal-1 and ha-1 using hypothetical data area!, lead to weed reinfestation, although continuous training some who use continuous methods! Between level of labor and management 74.4 percent ) pastures as a approach! Bloat than from bloat itself because it keeps them from efficiently using the alfalfa pasture the amount. Of ‘ silawrap silage ’ making in Malaysia using plastic sheet for airtight wrapped bales low some... And cause soil erosion is there a drastic reduction in forage dry matter per acre grazing season or year repeated. Tended to depress ewe weights compared to continuous grazing and over a few years the favorite die. Changes of pasture species, an attempt will be made to indicate under what situations the different grazing systems actually... Of grazing for high-yielding dairy cows the stocking rate effects were highly significant (